# Outflow performance relationship pdf

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### Inflow & Outflow Performance Archives - Production Technology

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Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Nodal Analysis introduction to inflow and outflow performance - next 1. Assume flow rates ofy,BPD. The total pressure drop from the reservoir to the separator is the sum of the individual pressure drops through four different segments: in the reservoir, across the completion, up the wellbore, and through the flowline. But we do not know the flow rate - that is what we are trying to find.

How do we calculate the flow rate, knowing the reservoir and separator pressures? This is the central question of Nodal Analysis. Given the reservoir pressure and the separator pressure, along with the physical properties of each segment, what is the flow rate at which the well will produce?

The pseudo pressure relationship is possible for the all pressure ranges but applicability of pressure squared method is limited for pressure less than psia. Pressure squared is applicable only when product of viscosity and z is constant. This occurs only at low pressures. Hence pseudo pressure is method is preferred for gas well analysis. The steady state solution for single phase fluid flow is given by; Steady state is state where pressure of reservoir is maintained throughout due to present of constant pressure boundary i.

The semi steady state condition is for the well that produced long enough to felt a reservoir boundary. Semi-steady state is state where rate of pressure drop is constant i. The well is assumed to be flowing across the closed reservoir boundaries.

There is no flow across the boundaries. At a constant production rate, pressure decline will be constant for all radii and time. Deliverability test provides reservoir rate-pressure which used to prepare inflow performance relationship or gas-back pressure curve. Gas back pressure curve equation: Where C — flow coefficient, n- deliverability exponent Deliverability constant n is inverse of slope of the straight line. Flow coefficient can be determined by substituting any rate and corresponding pressure once n is obtained.

The equation show straight line behavior on log-log plot. Flow characterized by Darcy equation will have flow exponent of 1 while flow that exhibits non-Darcy flow behavior will have flow exponent value ranging between 0.

Above given equation can be used to prepare inflow performance curve for gas wells; Or The maximum gas flow rate term is AOF.You must log in to edit PetroWiki.

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ISBN Get permission for reuse. Mathematical models describing the flow of fluids through porous and permeable media can be developed by combining physical relationships for the conservation of mass with an equation of motion and an equation of state. This leads to the diffusivity equations, which are used in the petroleum industry to describe the flow of fluids through porous media.

The diffusivity equation can be written for any geometry, but radial flow geometry is the one of most interest to the petroleum engineer dealing with single well issues.

The radial diffusivity equation for a slightly compressible liquid with a constant viscosity an undersaturated oil or water is The pressure-squared form is This usually occurs only at low pressures less than approximately 2, psia. As a result, it generally is recommended that the pseudopressure solutions be used in the analysis of gas well performance. Radial diffusivity equations can be solved for numerous initial and boundary conditions to describe the rate-pressure behavior for single-phase flow.

Of primary interest to the petroleum engineer is the constant terminal-rate solution for which the initial condition is an equilibrium reservoir pressure at some fixed time while the well is produced at a constant rate.

The steady-state and semisteady-state flow conditions are the most common, though not exclusive, conditions for which solutions are desired in describing well performance. The steady-state condition is for a well in which the outer boundary pressure remains constant.

## Introduction to IPR and VLP

This implies an open outer boundary such that fluid entry will balance fluid withdrawals exactly. This condition may be appropriate when the pressure is being maintained because of active natural water influx or under active injection of fluid into the reservoir. The steady-state solution for single-phase liquid flow in terms of the average reservoir pressure can be written as The well is considered to be producing with closed boundaries; therefore, there is no flow across the outer boundaries.

In this manner, the reservoir pressure will decline with production and, at a constant production rate, pressure decline will be constant for all radii and times. This solution for single-phase liquid flow in terms of the average reservoir pressure is For steady state, the solutions are However, these stabilized conditions are often approximated in the reservoir and yield an acceptable estimate of well performance for single-phase flow.

In addition, these solutions provide a means to compare production rates for various estimates of rock and fluid properties and well completion options.

These relationships are useful as they allow the petroleum engineer the opportunity to estimate production rates before any well completion operations or testing. Little difference is obtained in estimates of production rates or pressure drops when using the steady-state or semisteady-state solutions and, in practice, many engineers use the semisteady-state solutions.

While each solution represents a distinctly different physical system, the numerical difference is minor when compared with the quality of the estimates used for rock and fluid properties, drainage area, and skin factor, as well as accounting for the heterogeneous nature of a reservoir. Dake, [3] Craft, Hawkins, and Terry, [4] and Lee and Wattenbarger [5] provide complete details regarding the development of the diffusivity equations and the associated stabilized-flow solutions.

Isochronal Test. Cullendar [10] proposed the isochronal test to overcome the need to obtain a series of stabilized flow rates required for the flow-after-flow test for the slow-to-stabilize well. This test consists of producing the well at several different flow rates with flowing periods of equal duration.Your understanding of the concept is crucial. The easiest way to calculate pressure from depth is to use the pressure gradient of the given fluid.

Pressure gradient seems difficult, but it is simply using the density of the fluid and converting units:. Compared to liquid, gas has much higher permeability and much lower viscosity. These two factors will give the gas a much higher flow rate than liquid inside the reservoir, so that:.

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Below the bubble point pressure, the solution gas escapes from the oil and become free gas. The free gas occupies some portion of pore space and reduces flow of oil.

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This effect is quantified by:. A decrease of oil Relative permeability An increase of oil viscosity as its solution gas content drops. Therefore, the combination of the relative permeability effect and the viscosity effect results in lower oil production rate at a given bottom-hole pressure. The productivity of the well depends on an efficient use of the compressional energy available in the reservoir allowing the reservoir fluids to flow toward the production separator.

It describes the flow in the reservoir. The Pwf is defined in the pressure range between the average reservoir pressure and atmospheric pressure. A typical inflow performance relationship is presented in the following graph:. The intersection of the PI plot with the x-axis is the flow rate corresponding to a Pwf equal to zero. It describes the flow from the bottom-hole of the well to the wellhead. Well Inflow Performance represents the relationship between pressure and flow rate at the well face of an individual well.

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Etel Vina. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Free gas menempati sebagian ruang dari pori sehingga mengurangi aliran dari minyak dan efek ini dapat dikuantifikasi dengan berkurangnya permeabilitas relatif.

Hal ini juga mengakibatkan viskositas dari minyak menurun dikarenakan berkurangnya konsentrasi gas terlarut di dalam minyak. Kombinasi dari perubahan permeabilitas relatif dan perubahan viskositas mengakibatkan berkurangnya laju alir minyak pada bottom hole pressure tersebut. Hal ini mengakibatkan deviasi kurva IPR ketika berada di bawah bubble-point pressure. Semakin rendah tekanan tersebut maka semakin besar deviasinya. Gambar Gas LiftGas lift merupakan salah satu metode artificial lift yang digunakan dengan cara menginjeksikan gas pada sumur produksi, yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan laju produksi sumur.

Gas yang diinjeksikan secara kontinu akan menurunkan densitas dari hidrokarbon. Injeksi gas akan menurunkan gradien tekanan alir dengan menurunkan densitas fluida yang mengalir di dalam tubing sehingga menjadi lebih ringan dan lebih mudah untuk diproduksikan ke permukaan.

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Dengan demikian laju produksi minyak akan meningkat Gambar Cara menurunkan berat jenis fluida adalah dengan menginjeksikan gas kedalam sumur. Akan tetapi gas yang tersedia dilapangan seringkali terbatas, sehingga alokasi gas lift merupakan tugas besar yang harus diperhitungkan agar laju produksi tetap berjalan secara maksimal. Salah satu metode dalam alokasi gas injeksi adalah metode equal slope. Alokasi dengan metode ini dilakukan berdasarkan perbandingan antara qoil terhadap kebutuhan gas injeksi atau qinj.

Slope: Laju Alir Minyak terhadap Laju Alir Injeksi Gas Pada metode ini Qo pada Qo vs Qg inj, dibagi sama panjang lalu dilakukan perhitungan slope untuk setiap range kurva untuk setiap slope tertentu tersebut.

Hal ini berarti bahwa pada nilai gas injection rate tersebut didapat nilai flow rate yang maksimum laju injeksi gas lift. Setelah itu dibuat kurva slope vs gas injection rate untuk setiap sumur. Ilustrasi Equal Slope nilai slope yang sama. Kemudian dari kurva master slope ini dapat ditentukan hubungan antara total alokasi gas injection rate dengan slope gabungan dari beberapa sumur.

Masterslope Instalasi Gas LiftYang dimaksud disini adalah semua peralatan lift baik yang berada di dalam sumur maupun yang berada di permukaan, juga termasuk komplesi yang digunakan dalam sistem gas lift tersebut.

Jenis-Jenis Komplesi Gas Lift Peralatan Gas LiftPeralatan gas lift untuk menunjang operasinya sistem pengangkatan minyak dengan menggunakan metode injeksi gas ke dalam sumur dapat dibagian dua kelompok yaitu : A. Peralatan di Atas Permukaan Surface Equipment Well head gas lift x-mastreeWell head sebetulnya bukan merupakan alat khusus untuk gas lift saja, tetapi juga merupakan salah satu alat yang digunakan pada metode sembur alam, dimana dalam periode masa produksi, alat ini berfungsi menggantungkan tubing dan casing disamping itu well head merupakan tempat duduknya x-mastree.

Station kompresor gasKompresor gas yaitu suatu alat yang berfungsi untuk mendapatkan gas bertekanan tinggi untuk keperluan injeksi. Di dalam stasiun kompresor, terdapat beberapa buah kompresor dengan sistem manifold-nya. Dari stasium kompresor ini dikirimkan gas bertekanan sesuai dengan tekanan yang diperlukan sumur-sumur gas lift melalui stasiun distribusi.

Stasiun distribusiDalam menyalurkan gas injeksi dari kompresor ke sumur terdapat beberapa cara, antara lain : e. Menghindari swabbing untuk high fluid well atau yang diliputi air.Aside from your social media image selection, the headline is one of the main ways your ad will make an impact (or fail to).

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Well Production System: VLP and IPR